Trauma surgery is a recognized subspecialty of general surgery. Trauma surgeons are physicians who have completed a five-year general surgery residency and usually continue with a one to two year fellowship in trauma and/or surgical critical care, typically leading to additional board certification in surgical critical care. There is no trauma surgery board certification at this point. To obtain board certification in surgical critical care, a fellowship in surgical critical care or anesthesiology critical care must be completed during or after general surgery residency. Source: American Board of Surgery, 2007 [1/1/2008: definition added, source added]
Additional Resources: http://www.absurgery.org/.